LIBERALISMOVocê sabe o que é liberalismo? Não?
Imagine que você pudesse escolher o quanto quer trabalhar. Se precisasse de mais dinheiro, trabalharia mais; se fosse do tipo que precisa de pouco para viver, trabalharia apenas um ou dois períodos na semana e o resto folgaria.

Agora imagine que cada um recebesse de acordo com o que produzisse. Quem produzisse mais, ganharia mais; quem produzisse menos, ganharia menos. Acha justo? Se sim, você é um liberal.

Suponhamos, por exemplo, que você não tivesse qualificação nenhuma. Quais seriam suas chances no mercado? Praticamente nulas, não é mesmo? Sobraria a você viver de biscate ou fazer bicos por aí (quando não se prostituir). Sabendo disso, você toparia trabalhar por um salário menor em vez encarar o fantasma do desemprego ou subempregar-se? Se escolheu a primeira opção, você é um liberal.

Surpreso? Sabia que a Consolidação das Leis do Trabalho (CLT) não permite que se receba menos, em caso de sub-qualificação, nem mais, em caso de maior eficiência? Sabia que jornadas superiores a 44 horas semanais são proibidas e que o máximo permitido são 2 horas-extras diárias?
Sabe o que isso significa? Que você não pode trabalhar mais, por exemplo, para comprar um carro novo ou uma casa. Para isso você precisa pedir dinheiro emprestado a um banco (a juros exorbitantes).

Significa, também, que você não pode trabalhar menos quando já estiver cansado e em fim de carreira ou quando simplesmente achar que precisa de menos dinheiro e mais lazer. Para isso você precisa aposentar-se e depender da boa vontade do estado em prover-lhe um salário digno (que raramente o é).

E se houvesse uma flexibilização? Seria bom ou ruim?Que tal perguntar à sua diarista? Pergunte o que ela prefere: trabalhar com carteira assinada, bater ponto, ter direito a férias, décimo-terceiro, abono salarial, seguro-desemprego ou atuar como autônoma, fixando o valor dos seus serviços e organizando os próprios horários? Em verdade, nem precisa. Sabemos que ela escolhe a segunda opção porque ganha mais e paga pouco ou nenhum imposto.

Por fim, imagine que os preços dos produtos fossem muito mais baratos no mercado. Tudo pela metade. Bom, né? Se a maioria adotasse o mesmo esquema da sua diarista, os encargos ao empregador e ao estado seriam menores, portanto a carga tributária e o custo da produção também seriam, resultando em produtos mais baratos.
Já pensou? Você escolheria o quanto e por quanto trabalhar, ganharia mais e gastaria menos. “Impossível!”, você deve estar pensando. Pois saiba que em países liberais funciona mais ou menos assim.

Ainda duvida? Pergunte agora ao seu médico. Médicos da iniciativa privada escolhem seus horários, optam por trabalhar mais quando precisam de mais dinheiro e menos quando não necessitam de tanto. Não têm todos esses “direitos” previstos na CLT, mas não trocam o esquema liberal por nenhum outro. Sabe por quê? Porque ganham melhor assim. Os mais qualificados cobram mais caro; recém-formados podem cobrar menos para poder competir.

Liberais encararam essa flexibilidade não como uma facilitação à exploração, mas como um direito do trabalhador.
E você, como pensa? 

André Paschoal é médico e escritor.
André Paschoal é médico e escritor.

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